From the age of 3 or 4, children begin to learn letters, numbers and begin to read and write, usually in kindergarten or nursery school together with the support of their parents.
The maturation of learning new and abstract symbols, such as numbers and letters, is different for each child, with alternating periods of rapid learning, maturation periods, and periods of rest, where it appears that the child has “stuck.” In its development.
MEMORY PROBLEMS AND RAPID FORGETFULNESS ARE CHARACTERISTIC OF CHILDREN WITH DYSLEXIA
It is a frequent problem, since between 10% and 15% of children suffer from it to some degree, with more affection in boys than in girls, so in a classroom of 25 children it is normal for at least one of them to suffer dyslexia.
PROBLEMS ASSOCIATED WITH DYSLEXIA
Dyslexia is often associated with other learning problems, such as dysgraphia, which is defined as a difficulty in correctly tracing letters, whether in size, writing pressure, etc., and could later be associated with dysorthography , which is the difficulty in correctly using spelling rules.
There may also be a pronunciation problem , especially in new words that are long or are combined, as they will cause difficulties when reading them.
HOW DYSLEXIA IS DETECTED
A dyslexic child will have difficulties in the aforementioned reading and writing, manifesting that he reads slowly, with work and making many mistakes when reading. You will also make quite a few spelling mistakes, or mistakenly join or separate a multitude of words.
It is common for you to have problems memorizing phrases or small learnings, with rapid forgetfulness.
In children of preschool age it will be seen that there is a confusion in the vocabulary and in its pronunciation in similar words; will have days of school success alternated with days of failure, with no apparent cause. You will not be able to easily learn songs, rhymes, or children’s stories. You will excel more in technical games, such as constructions and blocks, than in language skills. You will have a hard time learning to read and write, often writing numbers or letters “in the mirror” or you will have difficulty distinguishing between left and right. Learning the alphabet, multiplication tables, days of the week or months … will be arduous and expensive tasks for dyslexic children.
In children from 9 to 12 years old, it will be possible to notice when you have to combine several aspects of a reading-writing task, it will be frequent that you make spelling errors in a writing in which you have to structure several different concepts. It will have a strange way when writing, omitting letters or altering the order. He will be disorganized in his things, both at school and at home, just as it is common to have behavior problems, such as poor attention, immaturity traits when compared to his peers, impulsive gestures … together with a lack of confidence in himself, with the consequent increase in internal frustration.
These disorders do not occur in their entirety, and vary depending on the person and their circumstances. The common thing in all is the lack of attention , because as they have to make greater intellectual effort to achieve the same results, they often get mentally fatigued, producing this lack of attention. In reality, the child is not lazy, nor does he have a developmental delay, so he should not be blamed for his lack of attention
If the treatment is delayed and not taken on time, this problem worsens as the years go by, and the child becomes disinterested in studying , especially if he is not properly motivated in his family environment, lowering his school grades and feeling marginalized among his peers.
One of the most effective techniques in treatment is the so-called ” overlearning “, where literacy is relearned, adapting the rhythm to the child’s possibilities, and marking their successes.
In support of this technique, the file collections will be made , to vary the tasks so that they are not repetitive and not very motivating.
It is normal to spend a lot of time practicing overlearning so that the child will adequately master the new technique and replace it with what has been previously learned with mistakes, and will need help to relate the new concepts to what has been learned previously.
Working on the child’s self-esteem , as well as on dyslexia, is essential to achieve optimal results. Teachers must be involved and be aware of this disorder, to adapt their work rhythm in a personalized way without the child feeling special or different, to avoid being marginalized from their peers.
The role of the parents is also fundamental, all the effort should not fall on the teacher or the psychologist who treats the disorder. The greatest parental support must be given on an emotional and social level. It will be normal to have to explain to the child his dyslexic difficulty, so that the child understands that he is not “stupid” and that with effort he will overcome this difficulty successfully. You also have to make him feel loved and respected even if his school grades are not the best.